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Compiled on 2023-07-22 from rev 78b3be4447cc.

English suffices

Suffix -s

Suffixes -s/-es are used to create:

After -sh, -ch, -ss and -x endings suffix -es is added.

After -o usually suffix -es added:

cargo ⇒ cargoes, echo ⇒ echoes, go ⇒ goes, hero ⇒ heroes, tomato ⇒ tomatoes

but there are few exceptions:

memos, photos, pianos, videos

fe changed to ve and s append:

knife ⇒ knives, life ⇒ lives, wife ⇒ wives

f changed to v and es append:

half ⇒ halves, wolf ⇒ wolves, loaf ⇒ loaves

us changes to i:

cactus ⇒ cacti, nucleus ⇒ nuclei, focus ⇒ foci

is changed to es:

analysis ⇒ analyses, crisis ⇒ crises, thesis ⇒ theses

Words ending in consonant + -y change -y to -i and -es is appended:

apply ⇒ applies, baby ⇒ babies, carry ⇒ carries, marry ⇒ marries

General rule is just append -s suffix:

bring ⇒ brings, buy ⇒ buys, day ⇒ days, smile ⇒ smiles, speak ⇒ speaks

[s] pronunciation is used after voiceless sounds:

[f] beliefs, coughs, laughs, graphs
[k] attacks, books, bricks, drinks
[p] cups, helps, ships, stops
[t] hits, pets, writes
[θ] maths, months, moths, myths

[z] pronunciation is used after voiced sounds:

[ɡ] bags, dogs, pigs, rugs
[b] crabs, grabs, robs
[ð] bathes, breathes, clothes, lathes
[d] cards, ends, lids, rides, words
[l] calls, falls, fails, hills
[m] comes, dreams, plums, trams
[n] earns, burns, pens, runs
[ŋ] belongs, paintings, kings, sings, songs
[r] wears, cures
[v] drives, gloves, leaves, loves
-y: plays, boys, says

[ɪz] or [əz] pronunciation is used after sibilant sounds:

[dʒ] ages, changes, edges, bridges, images, pages
[s] boxes, bosses, buses, fixes, kisses, places, races
[∫] crashes, dishes, pushes, teaches, washes, wishes
[ʧ] churches, matches, watches
[z] chooses, freezes, prizes, rises, sizes, quizzes

Suffix -ed

Words ending in -e do not require additional e:

agree ⇒ agreed, arrive ⇒ arrived,  love ⇒ loved

Words ending in a consonant + -y change the -y to i before -ed:

apply ⇒ applied, cry ⇒ cried, dry ⇒ dried

Word ending in -ic change ending to -ick before ing:

frolic ⇒ frolicked, mimic ⇒ mimicked, panic ⇒ panicked
picnic ⇒ picnicked, traffic ⇒ trafficked

The general rule is add -ed to the verb:

clean ⇒ cleaned, seem ⇒ seemed, sail ⇒ sailed

[id] is pronounced after the letters t, d:

[d]: added, ended, handed, faded, folded, needed
[t]: hated, retreated, started, wanted, waited

[d] is pronounced after a voiced consonant or after a vowel:

[ɡ]: begged, bugged, flagged, tagged
[b]: grabbed, robbed
[ð] bathe ⇒ bathed, breathed
[d] ended, lidded
[dʒ]: changed, judged, raged
[l]: called, failed, piled
[m]: boomed, drummed, farmed, formed
[n]: earned, learned, pinned, rained
[ŋ] belonged, pinged, wronged
[r]: cured, occurred
[v]: craved, loved, saved
[z]: amazed, buzzed, seized
employed, lied, mowed, played, skied, studied, toed, tried, weighed

[t] is pronounced after a voiceless consonant:

[ʃ]: crashed, flashed, pushed, washed, wished
[f]: coughed, laughed, puffed
[ʧ]: hatched, matched, watched, wished
[k]: baked, looked, lacked, packed
[p]: jumped, stopped, trapped
[s]: fixed, kissed, passed, placed
[θ]: frothed

Suffix -ing

Suffix -ing are used to create:

Words ending in -ee, -ye, -oe keep the -e:

agree ⇒ agreeing, flee ⇒ fleeing, free ⇒ freeing, see ⇒ seeing

Words ending in -ie change the -i to -y and -e is dropped before -ing:

die ⇒ dying, lie ⇒ lying, tie ⇒ tying

Words ending in -e drop the -e before -ing:

give ⇒ giving, love ⇒ loving, lose ⇒ losing
argue ⇒ arguing, issue ⇒ issuing, sue ⇒ suing

Word ending in -ic change ending to -ick before ing:

frolic ⇒ frolicking, mimic ⇒ mimicking, panic ⇒ panicking
picnic ⇒ picnicking, traffic ⇒ trafficking

The general rule is just add -ing to the verb:

accept ⇒ accepting, go ⇒ going, hurry ⇒ hurrying, play ⇒ playing

Suffix -er

Syffix -ly

Doubling consonants

When word ends with one of consonants b, d, g, l, m, n, p, r, t that followed by single vowel this consonant doubled before prefixes -ed, -er, -est, -ing:

hop ⇒ hopped, rub ⇒ rubbed, prefer ⇒ preferred, transmit ⇒ transmitted
admit ⇒ admitting, forget ⇒ forgetting, sit ⇒ sitting, slim ⇒ slimming
travel ⇒ traveller, wet ⇒ wetter
thin ⇒ thinner
red ⇒ reddish, occur ⇒ occurrence